Soil contamination and colonization by ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with holm oak

The environmental disaster caused by the breakdown of the decanting basin of the Aznalcóllar mine, Seville (in 1998), left behind hectares of contaminated land. The tasks of decontamination and restoration of the ecosystem led to the establishment of a green and environmentally protected area, the Guadiamar Green Corridor. The restoration was carried out through plantations of native trees, however, the restoration of the microbial flora of the soil, a crucial component for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, was not included.

A research group from IRNAS, CSIC, in collaboration with the EEZ, CSIC, the University of Seville and the University of Copenhagen (Denmark) have assessed the status of the ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) community associated with the roots of the holm oak (Quercus ilex) in the contaminated and recovered Guadiamar soils. Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations mainly with trees. These fungi develop a hyphal sheath, known as the mantle, around the roots tips of trees where the exchange of nutrients (carbohydrates for nitrogen, mainly) is developed inherent in this type of symbiosis. A single tree can be colonized, at the same time, by several species of fungi. However, within the group of fungal species capable of developing this type of symbiosis, there are functional differences, both at the level of nutrient intake and exchange with the plant, and at the plant protection against trace elements contamination. These differences can be inferred, in part, from the morphology of these fungi, but few studies have been based on the characterization of individual mycorrhizal root tips to infer the effects of an environmental impact on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities.

The molecular and morphological characterization of the ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with holm oak in a pollution gradient in the Guadiamar Green Corridor allowed us to discover that contamination is in fact affecting the functional composition of the ECM community. In the most contaminated areas, there was a reduction in the abundance of fungi capable of exploring the substrate at long and medium distances, which could, consequently, affect the nutritional status of trees at contaminated sites.

The study has been published in the journal Soil Biology and Biochemistry:

López-García, Á., Gil-Martínez, M., Navarro-Fernández, C. M., Kjøller, R., Azcón-Aguilar, C., Domínguez, M. T., Marañón, T. (2018). Functional diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities is reduced by trace element contamination. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 121: 202-211.

Héloïse Crompot Master’s Thesis on evaluation of microbial activities in the soils of the Guadiamar Green Corridor

Between February and May 2017, the student Héloïse Crompot of the Haute École Condorcet (Belgium) has collaborated with the group Sustainable Use of the Soil-Plant System at IRNAS-CSIC in an evaluation study of the microbial activities under soils contaminated by trace elements.

Héloïse obtained her Master’s title in Industrial Engineering Sciences in Agronomy after presenting her Master’s Thesis titled “Evaluation of soil chemical status, microbial biomass and enzyme activities under three tree species, in soils contaminated by trace elements, in the Green Corridor of the Guadiamar (Seville, Spain) “.

Thanks to this study we found out that in areas covered by trees there is a greater stabilization of the trace elements, and a greater enzymatic activity and microbial growth, than in open areas in the Guadiamar Green Corridor. We have also observed that there is a disturbance in the decomposition cycle of organic matter, which could be an effect of soil contamination.

Diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with holm oaks in the Guadiamar


Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi associate with plants to conform one of the most important symbioses in terrestrial ecosystems, with important incidence in the provision of some ecosystem services.

Álvaro López García presented on December 6, 2016, the seminar “Taxonomic and functional diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in metal polluted soils” within the Cycle of seminars of Section for Terrestrial Ecology, Deptartment of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

To deepen in how anthropogenic disturbance affect the taxonomic and functional diversity of ECM, we characterized the ECM fungal communities associated with holm oak trees used in the restoration of the Aznalcóllar toxic mine spill (SW Spain). The comparison between contaminated and control (non-contaminated) sites showed no differences in terms of taxonomic diversity. However a certain clustering in key traits of ECM fungi was found in communities exposed to higher levels of heavy metal pollution. This finding is in agreement with what expected from an environmental filtering process, i.e. species in a community tend to be more similar between them than expected by chance, and indicates that the functional diversity of ECM in contaminated sites is lower than in control sites.