Attending the 12th International Conference on Mine Closure

Last September, the 12th International Conference on Mine Closure was celebrated in Leipzig (Germany). This conference, organized by the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, is one of the world`s reference events among the mine closure professionals. The main conference topics that were discussed and that have been found as the main issues were:  establishing integrated life of mine planning, design sustainable land uses from the social and environmental perspective, increasing the post-mining assets value, and establishing  stable and self-regenerating ecosystems, among others.

Due to the urgent necessity of improving reclamation of mining areas, abandoned and/ or in transition to close, researchers from IRNAS-CSIC, University of Seville, University of Reading and Haute École Condorcet have collaborated to present a paper and an oral communication in this conference.

Gil-Martínez M, Domínguez MT, Navarro-Fernández CM, Crompot H, Tibbett M , Marañón T (2018). Long-term effects of trace elements contamination on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities, in C Drebenstedt, F von Bismarck, A Fourie & M Tibbett (eds), Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Mine Closure, Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany, pp. 633-644.

Results from the applied strategy of phytostabilisation on mining areas contaminated by heavy metals were presented. In our study area known as Guadiamar Green Corridor, where phytostabilisation have happened over 19 years, forestation has been found to improve soil fertility and microbial biomass, which is an indicator of improved soil quality. Moreover, different tree species have been found to affect soil chemistry and biology in different ways. White poplar was found to increase soil pH and to recover nutrients levels. However, stone pine was found to acidify the soil, increasing heavy metal availability and reducing microbial communities. In conclusion, previous to forestation is recommended to select the most suitable species for the specific conditions of the mining area to reclaim.

In this conference, Marta Gil-Martínez, predoctoral researcher from IRNAS-CSIC, had the opportunity to visit the Wismut Uranium Tailings Remediation Project , which started back in 1991 and currently clean-up, re-contouring and implementation of covers tasks are still in place. Last cover consists in revegetation to establish some forest and pastures areas, in order to maximize biodiversity.

 

Presentation in the Iberian Congress of Soil Science

“The soil as sustainable resource for the bioeconomy” was the theme for the VIII Iberian Congress of Soil Sciences, held at San Sebastián/Donosti, during 20-22 June 2018.

Researchers of the projects RECARE and RESTECO contributed to the 3rd session, devoted to “Protection and restoration of soils”, with the comunication titled “Soil restoration strategies in the Guadiamar River Valley. Evaluation of 20 year of monitoring after the Aznalcóllar mining accident”.

This work is a review of the 20-year monitoring of contaminated and remediated soils, after the Aznalcóllar mine-spill. The application of soil amendments (sugarbeet lime and biosolid compost) was evaluated and results of 14-year changes of pH and organic carbon were shown.

At a large scale, in a soil survey along the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers, high level of Cd and Zn were detected in certain spots of channel and river banks.

A copy of the presented poster can be downloaded from Digital CSIC.

Research Conference on soil remediation and ecosystem services

The mine accident occurred in Aznalcóllar (Sevilla) in April 1998 was a large-scale catastrophe of important ecological and socioeconomical consequences. The cleaning up and remediation of the soils contaminated with trace elements, the following afforestation, and the creation of a protected area – The Guadiamar Green Corridor – is a restoration case study of international relevance.

On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the mine accident, this April 26th 2018 the IRNAS, CSIC has organized a Research Conference on Soil remediation and ecosystem services. The inauguration was presided by José Enrique Fernández (Director of IRNAS), Isabel González (Director of the Doctorate Program on Natural Resources and Environment, University of Seville) and Margarita Paneque (CSIC Delegate in Andalusia).

The Conference consisted of six panel presentations and one round table. In the first talk Miguel Ferrer (EBD, CSIC), who was Director of the Doñana Biological Station in 1998, presented a historical perspective of the ecological impacts of the mine-spill and the learnings to prevent this type of accidents.

Francisco Cabrera (IRNAS, CSIC) and Emilio Galán (University of Seville) addressed the problems derived from soil contamination by trace elements, and the measures to remediate them. Paula Madejón (IRNAS, CSIC) presented the soil remediation measures evaluated by the IRNAS for the European project RECARE, and exhibited a video recorded by Viverra Films.

María Teresa Domínguez (University of Seville) remarked the ecosystem services, in particular of regulation, provided by the remediated soils in the Guadiamar. Francisco Quirós (Andalusian Government) stated that the current management objective for the Protected Landscape Guadiamar Green Corridor is to consolidate the ecological corridor for biodiversity conservation, and the enhancement of ecosystem services, especially those of regulation and cultural.

Photo: Bruno Sester (CSIC)

The Conference finished with a round table moderated by Teodoro Marañón (IRNAS), about the topic “A recovered natural area: challenges and opportunities”. There was a consensus indicating that the main scientific and technical challenge, after the mine spill, was the quick cleaning up and remediation of the contaminated land. Among the opportunities, it was remarked the creation of a new protected area, and its function as ecological corridor, promoting biodiversity conservation. From the scientific perspective, there was the opportunity of having a natural laboratory where to test and evaluate remediation techniques for soils contaminated by trace elements. In this sense, it was very relevant the transfer of knowledge and technology acquired during these 20 years post-accident, and the potential application in similar cases.

Twenty years of environmental studies in the Guadiamar

The Aznalcóllar mine accident (April 1998) was a large-scale ecological and socio-economic catastrophe in the South of Spain. Since then, the Research Group SOIL-PLANT in the IRNAS, CSIC has been working on the area affected by the mine spill, currently known as Guadiamar Green Corridor.

With the occasion of the 20th anniversary of this environmental catastrophe, a review article has been prepared, including all the studies dealing with soil and plant relationships, carried out within the contaminated and remediated zone of the Guadiamar Green Corridor. This review is a contribution to RESTECO and RECARE projects.

The published information about the chemical composition of the sludge and contaminated soils is reviewed in this article, as well as the monitoring of trace elements and their dynamics in the soil-plant system. The effectiveness of different types of amendments to remediate these soils, at different spatial and time scales, is reviewed. The soil concentrations of trace elements are shown, and their transfer to plants (crops, herbs, shrubs and trees) are evaluated focused on the possible toxicity effects in the food web. The utility of some plant species (accumulators of trace elements) are examined, as biomonitors. Finally, the experience acquired during 20 years of environmental studies in the Guadiamar Green Corridor is discussed, remarking its international relevance as a large-scale phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

The review article is published in the June 2018 issue of the journal Science of the Total Environment.

Madejón P., Domínguez M.T., Madejón E., Cabrera F., Marañón T., Murillo J.M. 2018. Soil-plant relationships and contamination by trace elements: A review of twenty years of experimentation and monitoring after the Aznalcóllar (SW Spain) mine accident. Science of the Total Environment 625, 50–63.

Evaluation of measures to remediate contaminated soils: European meeting

The RECARE project is focused on preventing and remediating degradation of soils in Europe.

A Plenary Meeting has been held at Hella (Iceland), from May 29th to June 2nd 2017. Each of the 17 study sites participating in the project presented their results.

Photo: Erik van den Elsen

The Group SOIL-PLANT, from the IRNAS, CSIC, presented their results about two measures applied for the remediation of contaminated soils at the Guadiamar Green Corridor: a) amendment addition and b) tree plantation.

Those results are part of a joint work by the projects RECARE and RESTECO.

Copies of the presentation and poster can be consulted at the repository Digital CSIC.